czwartek, 7 kwietnia 2016

EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

For the first time the concept of emotional disorders appeared in the thirties of the twentieth century. According to the test results in most of the kids, in the subsequent stages of development, there are various types of symptoms which we can be taken as disorders, but they can also appear in children who are developing normally (like: fear or anger). Unfortunately emotional disorders appear very often in preschool age children. Usually this type of children make significant behavioral problems. 

CAUSES OF EMOTIONAL DISORDERS

The most important things we can consider as causes of emotional disorders are: lack of acceptance, love, sensitivity, sense of security and self-esteem, as well as family conflicts or emotional problems in parents life. In situation when these life experiences prevail in a child’s life, its emotional development will not work properly. 

According to S. Gerstman causes of emotional disorders are connected with:

1. Excessive emotional contact with people we love .This problem might be caused by an overprotective attitude or anxiety disorder of in the mother’s behavior; as a consequence the child is afraid to leave the mother even for a short time. 
2. Consumer attitude, which may be the result of errors in educational type of limited independence: prohibiting the child from participating in household duties
3. Emotional egotism which is characterized by lack or shortage of the development of higher feelings, particularly social ones, but also the inability to reciprocate the feelings of love and compassion with others
4. A sense of inferiority or excessive power. 

ANXIOUS CHILDREN

Neurotic disorders rely on morbidly fearful situation of stress. Constant anxiety and fear prevent child from proper adaptation to the conditions and requirements of the environment, and cause behavioral disorders. The concept of neurosis was introduced in 1776 by doctor Cullen. Today we know that the main causes of neurosis are traumatic experiences stemming from the unfavorable situations in the external environment, causing disturbance of normal functioning.

1. Variability of the requirements-  sparing a child at home by the parents, and requiring independent working at kindergarten
2. Contradictory requirements- rewarding and punishing a child for its behaviour (in different environments).
3. Requirements maladjusted to child’s possibilities


EATING PROBLEMS

Appetite disorder is a neurotic lack of appetite. This disorder occurs in about 2/3 of preschool children.

The eating disorder may be a reaction to:

1. Giving your child food it does not approve 
2. Jealousy of siblings and the love of parents (i.e. newborn in the family)
3. Need of attention and care

In some children who suffer from nervous disorders we can observed vomiting, coexisting with anorexia, or existing spontaneously as a reaction to the unpleasant experience related to eating.

HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN

Usually these type of children can easily explode with anger, scream or cry in situations when others do not react so violently. They find it hard to calmly and patiently overcome adifficulties that are accumulating . Emotional reactions of these children are violent, disproportionately strong to the stimulus. Hyperactive children are characterized by a weak, hyperactive, labile nervous system; they get tired quickly while doing something, hyper action lasts briefly giving way to the short duration of the protective braking. As a result, these children are  easily weary, tired and are not persistent in their tasks. It is essential to remember that hyperactive reactions are not due to child’s bad intentions or malice, but are the result of certain typological characteristics of the nervous system.


TO SUM UP

Discussing the various disorders symptoms and the causes of their occurrence will help understand, that they do not lie only in the child, but they are also child's responses to the conditions created by adults. As more and more often we can observe various emotional disorders in the kindergarten age children, I believe that both educators and parents should have a thorough knowledge on this subject. It can help with quicker diagnosis of emotional disorders and establishing cooperation with parents in order to develop effective actions.


Autor: Aleksandra
Studentka Wyższej Szkoły im. Pawła Włodkowica w Płocku na kierunku: Edukacja Wczesnoszkolna i Wychowanie Przedszkolne. Absolwentka Oxford Cherwell College w Wielkiej Brytanii oraz policealnej szkoły medycznej na kierunku Ratownik Medyczny

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